Tartar, which your dentist calls calculus, is a product of the minerals and plaques in your saliva. Stones are the main cause of gum diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis.
Stone creates the biggest problem, especially when it forms below the gum line. The stone is calcareous and hard; it is difficult to clean. Part of regular dental checkups includes cleaning your teeth and stones. This cleaning process is done by scraping the teeth with tools called grater and curette especially for stones below the gum line. The procedure is uncomfortable and bleeding your gums. Another method is to use a vibrator to help clean stones.
Nowadays, there is a lot of advertisement for toothpastes against tartar. These toothpastes have been found to reduce stone build-up on teeth above the gum, but have little or no effect for stones below the gum line. Unfortunately, it is the stones (tartar) that form under the gums that cause periodontitis, a gum disease that can result in tooth loss. Tartar-controlled toothpastes can have an effect on an aesthetic appearance and help your teeth clean better when you go to your dentist, but they have little benefit in preventing real harmful stones from forming.
There are also special toothpastes designed to remove tooth stains caused by smoking. People who have already recessed gums may suffer from such toothpaste that will expose the softer layers under the gum line. These types of toothpastes can also cause your teeth to become more sensitive to hot or cold foods.
The approval of the specialist bodies on some anti-tartar toothpastes is not for the anti-tartar quality, but for the fluoride contained in the toothpaste.